Rupert Neve Designs Portico 5043 Compressor/Limiter Duo
The 5043 Compressor/Limiter Duo is a new and powerful approach to dynamic processing! This new addition to the Portico(Trademark) range is designed with both tracking and mixing applications in mind.
The Portico(Trademark) 5043 embodies two independent Compressor-Limiters (Channels A and B) housed within a half rack, 1U module. They can be used independently or connected in sequence to provide two separate control slopes.
When used independently, for example, as a stereo pair, linking the D.C. control circuits via a front panel Push-Button, enables the level of each unit, 'A' and 'B', to be held in a constant relationship. Rear panel TRS connections are provided to link multiple 5043s. This linking may also be extended to the former AMEK CIB and DMCL units.
When used in sequence, the Portico(Trademark) 5043 can be configured easily to provide dual slope compression and limiting as suggested in the graphs below.
Buss or Line Input Selection
Any number of Portico(Trademark) modules that are equipped with the mysterious “TO BUSS inch button may be sent to the BUSS input of the 5043 which makes it the ideal choice to form the core of a simple and cost-effective Portico(Trademark) mixing system. The Line input, when selected, provides a dedicated, transformer-balanced 10K impedance bridging input so that the 5043 may be inserted or included in any appropriate part of the signal chain at Console line-up level.
The Rupert Neve Designs 5043 module is a half rack width, 1.75 inch (1U) module in the now well-known Portico(Trademark) style. Construction takes the form of a heavy and robust steel shell providing total magnetic screening and exceptional mechanical stability. The front panel is machined from a solid ?-inch aluminum plate with a steel sub panel behind it.
Alternative front panel layouts are available providing a choice of vertical or horizontal mounting for the 5043. When the horizontal front panel is chosen, a single 5043 can sit firmly on a bench or desktop on its detachable rubber feet. Two 5043s can be joined with the optional (RND#5221 -?) Horizontal Joining Kit, it can then be mounted across a standard 19 inch rack.
When the vertical option is chosen, up to Eight 5043s can be mounted in an optional Rack-Mounting Frame that is equipped with guide rails. This leaves a 3 inch width that can be used to house a Power Supply or other future modules. The optional Rack-Mounting Frame includes basic rear cable management. Blank panels are available to fill any unused spaces when the full complement of eight modules is not fitted.
THE WAY THE 5043 WORKS
In order to control gain, a V.C.A. or Voltage Controlled Amplifier (or Attenuator) is used. There are many types of V.C.A., including the use of tubes, discrete and integrated solid state circuits and naturally non-linear devices, each one having its characteristic behavior that reflects sonically on the final performance, and gives it a character or signature that can be musically attractive or – not! The Portico(Trademark) 5043 makes use of a very accurate, low noise, low distortion V.C.A. having, essentially, no 'signature' of its own.
A part of the audio signal is rectified and smoothed to produce a suitable control voltage for the V.C.A. which has to respond very quickly and have low distortion. If the response is too fast, low frequency signals will themselves, be “gain controlled inch! If the response is too slow, the signal will overshoot and the first few cycles will not get compressed. The speed and accuracy of the response, known as the “attack inch, and the time frame that gain remains under the initial control, known as “release inch or “recovery inch and plays a large part in the way a compressor sounds.
All Portico(Trademark) modules use input and output transformers and, almost entirely discrete component amplifiers. In fact the Line amplifiers on their own, inserted into the signal chain, are capable of enhancing the sonic quality of many signal sources, especially those of digital origin. These are some of the factors that enable, the PORTICO(Trademark) 5043, to work so unobtrusively within the context of a very high quality audio chain.
FEED FORWARD or FEED BACK
The Portico(Trademark) 5043 provides a choice of feed-forward or feed-back compression modes. The FB Button allows the user to switch between the two modes.
If the V.C.A. Control voltage is taken from the 5043 input, (i.e. before the V.C.A.) the V.C.A. “knows inch right away that a gain change is required and there is almost immediate response. This is known, logically, as a “Feed-Forward inch compressor.
If the V.C.A. Control voltage is taken from the 5043 output, (i.e. after the V.C.A.) it cannot act immediately on the V.C.A. because it has already been modified by settings of the V.C.A. and circuits through which it has passed. This is known as a “Feed-Back inch compressor. The two compression characteristics are quite different: there is more “Overshoot inch and both the attack and recovery ramps are changed, providing the user with powerful choices.
Almost all of Mr. Rupert Neve's earlier designs were “Feed-Back inch. They were more musical and sweeter than with “Feed-Forward inch designs: however the “Feed-Forward inch design provides greater accuracy. inch
DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN FEATURES
For signals below the “threshold inch level that has been set, a compressor provides a linear path allowing signals to be amplified without the gain being adjusted in any way. When signals exceed the “threshold inch level, the gain is reduced in a controlled manner that depends on the Ratio that has been set.
Range 1:1 to LIMIT (i.e. 40:1)
Above a given “THRESHOLD inch signals are reduced by an adjustable amount ranging from 1:1, (which is linear, or no reduction at all), to more than 40:1 which is a very high ratio, equivalent to that of a Limiter. RATIO is sometimes referred to as “Slope inch because when depicted on a graph, the slope of the graph representing Output versus Input, is what changes.
RATIO and THRESHOLD are closely inter-dependent. If a RATIO as high as 40:1 has been set, then if the THRESHOLD is set at 0 dBu, even when a massive signal of +40 dBu (unlikely!) is presented to the input, the output signal will only be +1 dBu. RATIOS as high as this would normally be set somewhere above 0 dBu - say at +14 dBu, in order to prevent the output signal level exceeding just over +14 dBu to protect, for example, a digital recorder. Similarly, if a RATIO of 5:1 has been set, an input signal which is 10dB above THRESHOLD will only rise by 2dB above that THRESHOLD at the output.
THRESHOLD control covers the Range from below -30dB to +22dBu. When THRESHOLD set at a low level, with a fairly high RATIO the amount of gain reduction will be considerable and it may be necessary to use some GAIN after the compressor to restore the apparent signal level.
RELEASE (or RECOVERY) and ATTACK TIME
Range of RELEASE time is 100 mS to 2.5 Seconds. Range of ATTACK time is 20 mS to 75 mS.
The notes above explain how the 5043 handles signals of constant amplitude such as pure tones. Real program signals, however, are continually changing in level. The way in which a compressor deals with actual program material depends upon the magnitude and duration of peaks in the program level.
If the RELEASE TIME is set to be very short, a short duration signal will be compressed but the gain will return to normal very quickly, giving a fluctuating and un-natural sound known as “Pumping inch when the background, or other signals, are forced up and down. The gain will also tend to follow the wave form of low frequency signals. RELEASE TIME should be set long enough for the gain to remain reasonably constant between each bass note or between speech syllables.
The ATTACK time is the time taken for the compression circuits to start compressing. A long ATTACK time allows short duration peaks to “escape inch and go through uncompressed. This may cause overload on subsequent digital circuits. A very short attack time sounds un-natural and robs the signal of “life inch by removing transients. Some transients are extremely fast and have little effect on the sound quality. Setting a long attack time often means that almost no gain reduction occurs because the transient is history (!) before compression has had time to operate. However, even the fastest circuits take time to operate which means that there is always some “Overshoot inch. Small amounts of “Overshoot inch are musically desirable – there are exceptions, of course.
Setting the right values of RELEASE and ATTACK is what compression is all about! Once the principles are understood a Compressor-Limiter such as the 5043 provides a powerful tool that actually appears to enhance the dynamic range of a recording and so provide greater musical enjoyment.
GAIN range provided is from -6dB to +20 dB.
As already noted, when compression has taken place, it may be necessary to increase the overall gain to restore the apparent program level
Cascading the two sections, A and B, of the Portico(Trademark) 5043 Compressor- Limiter provides extremely powerful and comprehensive control of Dynamic Range.
When an external audio connection is made from the output of one channel to the input of the other, the overall compression characteristics become a composite of the two. For example, Channel A may be set up as a Low Ratio compressor and Channel B may be set up as a High Ratio Compressor or Limiter, to produce a powerful composite characteristic:
When the LINK Push-Button is engaged and the two channels, A and B, set to approximately the same values, GAIN control on both channels will be the same to preserve Stereo balance, levels normally being controlled by the channel with the higher signal level.
When the LINK Push-Button is engaged, the signal passing through, channel A, may be used to control the amplitude of channel B. For example, the level of music through channel A can be controlled by speech on channel B, i.e. reducing the music level to make a “speech-over inch announcement.
Two LED METERS are provided, OUTPUT LEVEL and GAIN REDUCTION. These are switched between Channel A and Channel B on the central METER SELECT Push Button.
OUTPUT LEVEL Indicates the actual output level in dBu. The GREEN segments cover the range from -10 to +12 dBu. The YELLOW segments cover the range from +16 to +18 dBu and the RED segment, +22 dBu and above which is regarded as overload.
REDUCTION is calibrated in dB covering the range 1 to 22 dB, reading backwards. This meter indicates the amount of actual reduction taking place and therefore is a valuable point of reference indicating the operation point of the 5043.